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The two equine genotyping platforms used in the discovery population share 45,703 SNPs. This shared set of markers can be extracted and the files merged into a single data set, but data from tens of thousands of markers is lost. Genotype imputation is a technique that statistically estimates genotypes from non-assayed SNPs by comparing haplotype blocks in the study population with haplotype blocks in a more densely genotyped reference population. A pipeline for imputation of equine genotyping data was established and validated utilizing BEAGLE (version 3)  software for imputation . Using this pipeline, imputation was performed in the 2007 cohort for the 18,000 markers unique to the Equine SNP70 chip, while imputation was performed in the remaining samples for the 9,000 markers unique to the Equine SNP50 chip. Resulting imputed files were merged with the original data files using the --merge command in PLINK .
Software Splan 70 Full 182
The SKC pedigrees include individuals of other countries if such individuals have descendants in the Swedish populations. Thus, when a dog is imported, or when a Swedish dog is mated to a dog abroad, pedigree information a few generations back that include dogs with foreign registration numbers are included in the Swedish studbooks. We have always excluded such dogs among those classified as alive since these dogs do not exist within the Swedish populations. We only included dogs with a Swedish registration number as being alive and dogs with foreign registration numbers that should be alive according to the maximum age of 12 years criterion have been marked as dead, while they do not belong to the Swedish population. A complete date of birth is required for the applied pedigree software (see below) and we therefore assigned suitable dates of birth to individuals lacking this data (approximately 5 percent of the individuals) based on existing information (i.e. birth dates of parents and/or offspring in the studbook). We used the mPed software  to perform such modifications of birth and death dates. For 0.2 percent of the individuals lacking birth information no guiding data were available and thus no approximate birth date could be assigned.
To evaluate potential differences in the parameters assessed over time within breeds we used analyses of variance tests (ANOVAs) performed with MS Excel and R 2.12.2. The latter software was also used for Kruskal-Wallis tests. Two-factor ANOVAs were performed in MS Excel. Because of the unbalanced data sets with large differences in number of observations per breed and point in time, we used two-factor ANOVAs without replication. MS Excel was also used for t-tests and linear regression analyses.
The size, depth (number of generations), and number of founders of the full pedigrees as of December 31, 2012 varies greatly for separate breeds (Table 2). The numerically smallest breed is the Gotland hound whose full pedigree includes only 350 individuals descending from 12 founders, whereas the Drever is the largest breed with over 66,000 individuals in the full pedigree descending from 316 founders. The number of generations over the study period varies from 4.6 generations in the Swedish white elkhound to 11.4 for the Swedish vallhund. For three breeds very few individuals are defined as alive at our earliest time point of analysis in December 31, 1980; the Gotland hound (2 individuals), the Swedish white elkhound (5 individuals), and the Danish-Swedish farmdog (23 individuals). We have performed analyses both including and excluding these data. Retention of genetic variation is an explicit breeding goal for all of the 12 breeds according to the breed specific strategic breeding plans. Disease control programs for genetic diseases/disorders were in operation for five breeds in 2012 (Table 1).
In order to reduce the rate of loss of genetic variation and increase of inbreeding that has been documented in many dog breeds we recommend that conservation genetic criteria such as MK rankings are included when selecting animals for breeding. Further, a larger portion of existing dogs should be used in breeding. For the breeds of the present study current census sizes imply that future increase of inbreeding and loss of genetic variation has the potential to be miniscule if more dogs are used in breeding and extreme variation in offspring production between separate dogs are avoided. We note that both software applied here (PMx and mPed) are freely available and genetic monitoring using pedigree data is a cost effective method to improve breeding from a conservation perspective. It is important, however, that supplementary genomic studies are conducted for these and other dog breeds in order to find out, e.g., how well the pedigree measurements reflect genomic inbreeding and levels of genetic variation.
We thank Swedish Kennel Club for providing the studbook data. We are grateful to Thomas Wink at the Swedish Kennel Club for extensive help with pedigree information, Nils Ryman for valuable discussions and suggestions, Ingvar Ståhl for help with programming and running software, Mari Edman for reviewing breeding plans and proof readings, Helena Falk for proof readings, the Academic Editor and two anonymous reviewers for valuable suggestions on a previous version of the manuscript.
Dylan released a triple album of a further 30 recordings of classic American songs, Triplicate, in March 2017. Dylan's 38th studio album was recorded in Hollywood's Capitol Studios and features his touring band. Dylan posted a long interview on his website to promote the album, and was asked if this material was an exercise in nostalgia. "Nostalgic? No I wouldn't say that. It's not taking a trip down memory lane or longing and yearning for the good old days or fond memories of what's no more. A song like "Sentimental Journey" is not a way back when song, it doesn't emulate the past, it's attainable and down to earth, it's in the here and now." The album was awarded a score of 84 on critical aggregator website Metacritic, signifying "universal acclaim". Critics praised the thoroughness of Dylan's exploration of the great American songbook, though, in the opinion of Uncut: "For all its easy charms, Triplicate labours its point to the brink of overkill. After five albums' worth of croon toons, this feels like a fat full stop on a fascinating chapter".
Coinciding with the film release, a box set of 14 CDs, The Rolling Thunder Revue: The 1975 Live Recordings, was released by Columbia Records. The set comprises five full Dylan performances from the tour and recently discovered tapes from Dylan's tour rehearsals. The box set received an aggregate score of 89 on the critical website Metacritic, indicating "universal acclaim".
Dylan has published Tarantula, a work of prose poetry; Chronicles: Volume One, the first part of his memoirs; several books of the lyrics of his songs, and eight books of his art. Dylan's third full length book, The Philosophy of Modern Song, which contains 66 essays on songs by other artists, was published on 1 November 2022. Dylan has also been the subject of numerous biographies and critical studies.
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